After two years of waiting we finally have official Debian 10 “Buster” release. New Debian is so perfect, that I didn’t see any bad opinion about yesterday release. Here you can read a short description of new OS and few-step instruction how to upgrade your Debian Stretch to Buster version.
What’s new in Debian 10?
- AppArmor – enabled by default
- Bash 5.0
- Calameres Installer
- CUPS 2.2.10 – driverless printing
- GNOME 3.3, KDE 5.14, LXDE 10, LXQt 0.14, MATE 1.2, Xfce 4.12.
- Linux Kernel 4.19.0-4
- nftables framework – a full replacement for iptables
- Nodejs 10.15.2
- OpenJDK 11
- Python 3.7.2
- Secure-boot support
- Wayland display server – instead of Xorg
- /bin, /sbin and /lib moved to /usr/
Few words about current release.
Changes are great and for everybody. For beginners there are things like Calameres – modern graphical OS installer. Thanks to new CUPS we can finally printing without headache. Advanced users should be happy because of official support for current stable Python/OpenJDK/Nodejs releases. Administrators should appreciate presence of kernel in LTS variant. It’s like Christmas in the middle of summer.
Upgrade Debian Stretch to Buster
1. Before upgrade let’s update current OS.
# apt-get update # apt-get upgrade # apt-get dist-upgrade
2. Optional: It is a good practice to check current status of installed packages. Missing and half-installed packages can ruin your upgrade (literally).
# dpkg -C # apt-mark showhold # dpkg --audit
If there are no problematic packages just go on further. If terminal prompted something about packages ‘on hold’. Try to fix them, till the problem disappear.
3. Not optional: Let’s make backup of source.list. It would be great to make backup of everything you can. I recommend you, at this point, to make a snapshot using Timeshift.
# cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.bak
4a. The whole upgrade process begins with updating package repository names. Change each ‘stretch’ reference in sources.list with ‘buster’ using editor of your choice. I recommend nano.
# nano /etc/apt/sources.list
It’s not necessary, but at this point it is a good practice to disable externals Debian repositories before upgrade. If you find these, just put ‘#’ before them. Basic sources.list file looks like below (source).
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian buster main deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian buster main deb http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ buster/updates main deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ buster/updates main deb http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-updates main deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-updates main
4b. With trick below you can change each ‘Stretch’ with ‘Buster’
# sed -i 's/stretch/buster/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
5. Once again update the local packages.
# apt-get update
6. Finally. To run updates and fully upgrade OS type
# apt-get upgrade # apt-get dist-upgrade
During installation there are few steps when your reaction will be necessary. You will be asked to restart services or read update notes.
Congratulation! You are real Buster owner!